Larance, B and Lintzeris, N and Bruno, R and Peacock, A and Cama, E and Ali, R and Kihas, I and Hordern, A and White, N and Degenhardt, L, The characteristics of a cohort who tamper with prescribed and diverted opioid medications, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 58 pp. 51-61. ISSN 0740-5472 (2015) [Refereed Article]
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier
Methods: Participants were 606 people from three Australian jurisdictions who reported past month injecting, snorting, chewing or smoking of a pharmaceutical opioid and had engaged in these practices at least monthly in the past 6 months. Baseline interviews were conducted prior to introduction of Reformulated OxyContin® in April 2014. Patterns of opioid use and cohort characteristics were examined according to whether participants were prescribed opioid medications, or exclusively used diverted medication./p>
Results: TThe cohort reported high levels of moderate/severe depression (61%), moderate/severe anxiety (43%), post-traumatic stress disorder (42%), chronic pain or disability (past 6 months, 54%) and pain (past month, 47%). Lifetime use of oxycodone, morphine, opioid substitution medications and codeine were common. Three-quarters (77%) reported ICD-10 lifetime pharmaceutical opioid dependence and 40% current heroin dependence. Thirteen percent reported past year overdose, and 70% reported at least one past month opioid injection-related injury or disease. The cohort displayed complex clinical profiles, but participants currently receiving opioid substitution therapy who were also prescribed other opioids particularly reported a wide range of risk behaviors, despite their health service engagement.
Conclusions: Findings highlight the heterogeneity in the patterns and clinical correlates of opioid use among people who tamper with pharmaceutical opioids. Targeted health interventions are essential to reduce the associated harms.
|Item Type:||Refereed Article|
|Keywords:||abuse deterrent, tamper resistant, pharmaceutical opioids, opioid, abuse liability, cohort|
|Research Division:||Psychology and Cognitive Sciences|
|Research Field:||Biological Psychology (Neuropsychology, Psychopharmacology, Physiological Psychology)|
|Objective Division:||Expanding Knowledge|
|Objective Group:||Expanding Knowledge|
|Objective Field:||Expanding Knowledge in Psychology and Cognitive Sciences|
|Author:||Bruno, R (Associate Professor Raimondo Bruno)|
|Author:||Peacock, A (Miss Amy Peacock)|
|Web of Science® Times Cited:||10|
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