Shiffman, S and Li, X and Dunbar, MS and Ferguson, SG and Tindle, HA and Scholl, SM, Social smoking among intermittent smokers, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 154 pp. 184-191. ISSN 0376-8716 (2015) [Refereed Article]
Copyright 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Background: "Social smoking" – smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS.
Methods: 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not.
Results: Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people's homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically.
Conclusions: Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS.
|Item Type:||Refereed Article|
|Keywords:||social smoking, intermittent smoking, ITS, non-daily smokers, ecological momentary assessment|
|Research Division:||Medical and Health Sciences|
|Research Group:||Public Health and Health Services|
|Research Field:||Preventive Medicine|
|Objective Group:||Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health)|
|Objective Field:||Substance Abuse|
|Author:||Ferguson, SG (Associate Professor Stuart Ferguson)|
|Web of Science® Times Cited:||4|
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