Degenhardt, L and Bruno, R and Ali, R and Lintzeris, N and Farrell, M and Larance, B, The introduction of a potentially abuse deterrent oxycodone formulation: Early findings from the Australian National Opioid Medications Abuse Deterrence (NOMAD) study, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 151 pp. 56-67. ISSN 0376-8716 (2015) [Refereed Article]
© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Methods: Data on pharmaceutical opioid sales; drug use by people who inject drugs regularly (PWID); client visits to the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC); and last drug injected by clients of inner-Sydney needle-syringe programmes (NSPs) were obtained, 2009-2014. A cohort of n=606 people tampering with pharmaceutical opioids was formed pre-April 2014, and followed up May-August 2014.
Results: There were declines in pharmacy sales of 80mg OxyContin® post-introduction of the reformulated product, the dose most commonly diverted and injected by PWID. Reformulated OxyContin® was among the least commonly used and injected drugs among PWID. This was supported by Sydney NSP data. There was a dramatic reduction in MSIC visits for injection of OxyContin® post-introduction of the new formulation (from 62% of monthly visits pre-introduction to 5% of visits, August 2014). The NOMAD cohort confirmed a reduction in OxyContin® use/injection post-introduction. Reformulated OxyContin® was cheaper and less attractive for tampering than Original OxyContin®.
Conclusions: These data suggest that, in the short term, introduction of an abuse-deterrent formulation of OxyContin® in Australia was associated with a reduction in injection of OxyContin®, with no clear switch to other drugs. Reformulated OxyContin®, in this short follow-up, does not appear to be considered as attractive for tampering.
|Item Type:||Refereed Article|
|Keywords:||pharmaceutical opioids, post-marketing surveillance, abuse deterrence, tamper resistance, opioid dependence, injecting drug usea|
|Research Division:||Psychology and Cognitive Sciences|
|Research Field:||Psychology not elsewhere classified|
|Objective Group:||Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health)|
|Objective Field:||Substance Abuse|
|Author:||Bruno, R (Associate Professor Raimondo Bruno)|
|Funding Support:||National Health and Medical Research Council (APP1022522)|
|Web of Science® Times Cited:||19|
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