Conservation of two lineages of peroxisomal (Type I) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolases in land plants, specialization of the genes in Brassicaceae, and characterization of their expression in Arabidopsis thaliana
Wiszniewski, AAG and Smith, SM and Bussell, JD, Conservation of two lineages of peroxisomal (Type I) 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolases in land plants, specialization of the genes in Brassicaceae, and characterization of their expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, Journal of Experimental Botany, 63, (17) pp. 6093-6103. ISSN 0022-0957 (2012) [Refereed Article]
Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 UK: England & Wales (CC BY-NC 2.0 UK) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/uk/
Arabidopsis thaliana has three genes encoding type I 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolases (KAT1, KAT2, and KAT5), one of which (KAT5) is alternatively transcribed to produce both peroxisomal and cytosolic proteins. To evaluate the potential importance of these four gene products, their evolutionary history in plants and their expression patterns in Arabidopsis were investigated. Land plants as a whole have gene lineages corresponding to KAT2 and KAT5, implying conservation of distinct functions for these two genes. By contrast, analysis of synteny shows that KAT1 arose by duplication of the KAT2 locus. KAT1 is found in the Brassicaceae family, including in the genera Arabidopsis, Capsella, Thellungiella (=Eutrema) and Brassica, but not in the more distantly related Caricaceae (order Brassicales), or other plants. Gene expression analysis using qRT-PCR and β-glucuronidase reporter genes showed strong expression of KAT2 during germination and in many plant tissues throughout the life cycle, consistent with its observed dominant function in fatty acid β-oxidation. KAT1 was expressed very weakly while KAT5 was most strongly expressed during flower development and in seedlings after germination. Isoform-specific qRT-PCR analysis and promoter β-glucuronidase reporters revealed that the two splicing variants of KAT5 have similar expression profiles. Alternative splicing of KAT5 to produce cytosolic and peroxisomal proteins is specific to and ubiquitous in the Brassicaceae, and possibly had an earlier origin in the order Brassicales. This implies that an additional function for KAT5 arose between 43 and 115 mybp. We speculate that this KAT5 mutation was recruited for a cytosolic function in secondary metabolism.