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Within- and between-city contrasts in nitrogen dioxide and mortality in 10 Canadian cities; a subset of the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC)

Citation

Crouse, DL and Peters, PA and Villeneuve, PJ and Proux, MO and Shin, HH and Goldberg, MS and Johnson, M and Wheeler, AJ and Allen, RW and Atari, DO and Jerrett, M and Brauer, M and Brook, JR and Cakmak, S and Burnett, RT, Within- and between-city contrasts in nitrogen dioxide and mortality in 10 Canadian cities; a subset of the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 25 pp. 482-489. ISSN 1559-0631 (2015) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright 2015 Nature America, Inc. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

DOI: doi:10.1038/jes.2014.89

Abstract

The independent and joint effects of within- and between-city contrasts in air pollution on mortality have been investigated rarely. To examine the differential effects of between- versus within-city contrasts in pollution exposure, we used both ambient measurements and land use regression models to assess associations with mortality and exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) among ~735,600 adults in 10 of the largest Canadian cities. We estimated exposure contrasts partitioned into within- and between-city contrasts, and the sum of these as overall exposures, for every year from 1984 to 2006. Residential histories allowed us to follow subjects annually during the study period. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for many personal and contextual variables. In fully-adjusted, random-effects models, we found positive associations between overall NO2 exposures and mortality from non-accidental causes (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.07), cardiovascular disease (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06), ischaemic heart disease (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02-1.08) and respiratory disease (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.99-1.08), but not from cerebrovascular disease (HR per 5 p.p.b.: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.96-1.06). We found that most of these associations were determined by within-city contrasts, as opposed to by between-city contrasts in NO2. Our results suggest that variation in NO2 concentrations within a city may represent a more toxic mixture of pollution than variation between cities.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:criteria pollutants, epidemiology, exposure modelling
Research Division:Medical and Health Sciences
Research Group:Public Health and Health Services
Research Field:Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health)
Objective Field:Environmental Health
Author:Wheeler, AJ (Dr Amanda Wheeler)
ID Code:101144
Year Published:2015
Web of Science® Times Cited:20
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2015-06-10
Last Modified:2017-11-04
Downloads:359 View Download Statistics

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