Windsor, Ontario exposure assessment study: design and methods validation of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution monitoring
Wheeler, AJ and Xu, X and Kulka, R and You, H and Wallace, L and Mallach, G and Van Ryswyk, K and MacNeill, M and Kearney, J and Rasmussen, PE and Dabek-Zlotorzynska, E and Wang, D and Poon, R and Williams, R and Stocco, C and Anastassopoulos, A and Miller, JD and Dales, R and Brook, JR, Windsor, Ontario exposure assessment study: design and methods validation of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution monitoring, Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 61, (3) pp. 324-338. ISSN 1096-2247 (2011) [Refereed Article]
The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures upon asthmatic children's respiratory health was assessed. Several active and passive sampling methods were applied, or adapted, for personal, indoor, and outdoor residential monitoring of nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter (PM; PM-2.5 pm [PM2.5] and < or =10 microm [PM10] in aerodynamic diameter), elemental carbon, ultrafine particles, ozone, air exchange rates, allergens in settled dust, and particulate-associated metals. Participants completed five consecutive days of monitoring during the winter and summer of 2005 and 2006. During 2006, in addition to undertaking the air pollution measurements, asthmatic children completed respiratory health measurements (including peak flow meter tests and exhaled breath condensate) and tracked respiratory symptoms in a diary. Extensive quality assurance and quality control steps were implemented, including the collocation of instruments at the National Air Pollution Surveillance site operated by Environment Canada and at the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality site in Allen Park, Detroit, MI. During field sampling, duplicate and blank samples were also completed and these data are reported. In total, 50 adults and 51 asthmatic children were recruited to participate, resulting in 922 participant days of data. When comparing the methods used in the study with standard reference methods, field blanks were low and bias was acceptable, with most methods being within 20% of reference methods. Duplicates were typically within less than 10% of each other, indicating that study results can be used with confidence. This paper covers study design, recruitment, methodology, time activity diary, surveys, and quality assurance and control results for the different methods used.
personal exposure, air quality, particulate matter, UFP