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Free-ocean CO2 enrichment (FOCE) systems: present status and future developments


Gattuso, JP and Kirkwood, W and Barry, JP and Cox, E and Gazeau, F and Hansson, L and Hendriks, I and Kline, DI and Mahacek, P and Martin, S and McElhany, P and Peltzer, ET and Reeve, J and Roberts, D and Saderne, V and Tait, K and Widdicombe, S and Brewer, PG, Free-ocean CO2 enrichment (FOCE) systems: present status and future developments, Biogeosciences , 11 pp. 4057-4075. ISSN 1726-4170 (2014) [Refereed Article]


Copyright Statement

Copyright 2014 The Author

DOI: doi:10.5194/bg-11-4057-2014


Free-ocean CO2 enrichment (FOCE) systems are designed to assess the impact of ocean acidification on biological communities in situ for extended periods of time (weeks to months). They overcome some of the drawbacks of laboratory experiments and field observations by enabling (1) precise control of CO2 enrichment by monitoring pH as an offset of ambient pH, (2) consideration of indirect effects such as those mediated through interspecific relationships and food webs, and (3) relatively long experiments with intact communities. Bringing perturbation experiments from the laboratory to the field is, however, extremely challenging. The main goal of this paper is to provide guidelines on the general design, engineering, and sensor options required to conduct FOCE experiments. Another goal is to introduce xFOCE, a community-led initiative to promote awareness, provide resources for in situ perturbation experiments, and build a user community. Present and existing FOCE systems are briefly described and examples of data collected presented. Future developments are also addressed as it is anticipated that the next generation of FOCE systems will include, in addition to pH, options for oxygen and/or temperature control. FOCE systems should become an important experimental approach for projecting the future response of marine ecosystems to environmental change.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Research Division:Earth Sciences
Research Group:Oceanography
Research Field:Oceanography not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Environmental Management
Objective Group:Marine systems and management
Objective Field:Measurement and assessment of marine water quality and condition
UTAS Author:Roberts, D (Dr Donna Roberts)
ID Code:100274
Year Published:2014
Web of Science® Times Cited:45
Deposited By:Research Division
Deposited On:2015-05-08
Last Modified:2015-08-18
Downloads:384 View Download Statistics

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